effort was made to identify and preserve surviving varieties and new orchards were planted. As part of diversification, farmers have moved into commercial cider production, and the cider tradition is celebrated and marketed as a heritage experience. In Jersey, a strong (above 7%) variety is currently sold in shops and a bouché style is also marketed.
In Jersey, cider is used in the preparation of black butter (Jerriasi: nièr beurre), a traditional preserve.
Cider has been made in Chile since colonial times, Southern Chile accounts for nearly all Cider production in the country. Cider is also often linked to the production of chicha, a traditional alcoholic drink that is also made of apples but is considered of less quality.
Cider making has very short tradition in the Czech Republic. The first major producer of cider is company Mad Apple that has been producing cider since 2007. Cider Mad Apple is medium sweet, with 6% of alcohol, based on British type of this beverage. The Czech company makes cider from pure apple must from the Elbe plain. The origin of cider Mad Apple is in Morava, part of Czech Republic where agriculture is very dominant. This region is specialized in production of wines. Cider is also imported to Czech Republic, mostly from the UK. The most famous imported brands are Strongbow, Magners, Bulmers and Green Goblin. Now begin to produce Cider gardeners for their own use.
Despite a strong apple tradition, Denmark has little cider production. Six places that produce cider in Denmark are Pomona (since 2003), Fejø Cider (since 2003), Dancider (since 2004), Ørbæk Bryggeri (since 2006), Ciderprojektet (since 2008) and Svaneke Bryghus (since 2009). All are inspired mainly by English and French cider styles. The assortment of imported ciders has grown significantly since 2000, prior to that only ciders from Sweden, primarily non-alcoholic, were generally available. The leading cider on the Danish market is made by CULT A/S. In 2008, Carlsberg launched an alcoholic cider in Denmark called Somersby Cider.
Cider in Japan refers to a soft drink similar to Sprite or the UK definition of lemonade. It is most commonly available as Mitsuya Cider by Asahi, available in PET bottles from convenience stores and in tin-can bottles from select vending machines.
Cider in Korea is the same as in Japan, but from different makes and in different forms. A popular drink in mainland China is called "Apple Vinegar", which is actually cider. This drink is available in restaurants and to some degree in supermarkets. Compared to other fruit drinks and table wine, it is expensive. Shanxi Province is noted for the "vinegar" produced there.
In Finland cider holds the position as one of the most common drinks after beer. The best-known brands are Golden Cap, Fizzand Upcider. They typically contain 4,5-4,7%vol of alcohol. Virtually all Finnish cider is produced from fermented apple (or pear) juice concentrate and comes in a variety of flavours ranging from forest berries to rhubarb and vanilla.
French cidre is an alcoholic drink produced predominantly in Normandy and Brittany. It varies in strength from below 4% alcohol to considerably more. Cidre Doux is a sweet cider, usually up to 3% in strength. 'Demi-Sec' is 3–5% and Cidre Brut is a strong dry cider of 5% alcohol and above. Most French ciders are sparkling. Higher quality cider is sold in champagne-style bottles (cidre bouché). Many ciders are sold in corked bottles, but some screw-top bottles exist. Until the mid-20th century, cider was the second most-consumed drink in France (after wine) but an increase in the popularity of beer displaced cider's market share outside traditional cider-producing regions. In crêperies (pancakes restaurants) in Brittany, cider is generally served in traditional ceramic bowls (or wide cups) rather than glasses. A kir Breton (or kir normand) is a cocktail apertif made with cider and cassis, rather than white wine and cassis for the traditional kir. The Domfrontais, in the Orne (Basse-Normandie), is famous for its pear cider (poiré). The calvados du Domfrontais is made of cider and poiré.
Some cider is also made in south western France, in the French part of the Basque Country. It is a traditional drink there and is making a recovery. Ciders produced here are generally of the style seen in the Spanish part of the Basque Country.
Calvados, from Normandy, is a spirit is made of cider through a process called double distillation. In the first pass, the result is a liquid containing 28%–30% alcohol. In a second pass, the amount of alcohol is augmented to about 40%.
Breton cider making employs the technique of keeving (from the French cuvée). In keeving, calcium chloride and a special enzyme are added to the pressed apple juice, causing protein in the juice to precipitate to the top for removal. This reduces the amount of protein available to the yeast, starving it and therefore causing the cider to finish fermenting while sugar is still available. The result is a sweeter drink at a lower alcohol level but still retaining the full flavour of the apples, without dilution.
Main article: Cider in Germany
German cider, usually called Apfelwein (apple wine), and regionally known as Ebbelwoi, Apfelmost (apple must), Viez (from Latin vice, the second or substitute wine), or Saurer Most (sour must), has an alcohol content of 5.5%–7% and a tart, sour taste.
German cider is mainly produced and consumed in Hessen, particularly in the Frankfurt, Wetterau and Odenwald areas, in Moselfranken, Merzig (Saarland) and the Trier area, as well as the lower Saar area and the region bordering on Luxembourg and in the area along the Neckar river in Swabia. In these regions, there are several large producers, as well as numerous small, private producers often using traditional recipes. An official Viez route or cider route connects Saarburg with the border to Luxembourg.
Indian cider is mainly produced in the Himachal Pradesh state in Northern India. Cider made from apple, pear, plum, peach and other fruits is produced and marketed by state run firms such as the Himachal Pradesh Fruit Marketing & Processing Corporation (HPMC) and private firms such as Minchys [under the brand name Wonderwyne], Green Valley (Tempest Cider) and Gold Home.
Cider is a popular drink in Ireland; for a long time cider production was officially encouraged and supported by a preferential tax treatment. A single cider, Bulmers, dominates sales in Ireland: Owned by C&S and produced in Clonmel, Co Tipperary, this Bulmers has a connected history to the British Bulmers cider brand up until 1949. Outside the Republic of Ireland, C&C brand their cider as Magners. It is very popular in Ireland to drink cider over ice and encouraged in their advertising. Cidona, essentially a non-alcoholic version of Bulmers, is a popular soft drink in Ireland, and used to be a C&C-owned brand.
Cider was once widely produced in Northern Italy's apple growing regions, with a marked decline during fascist rule, due to the introduction of a law banning the industrial production of alcoholic beverages derived from fruits of less than 7% ABV, which was aimed at protecting wine producers. Present laws and regulations are favourable to cider makers, but production has only survived in a few alpine locations, mostly in the regions of Trentino, and in Piedmont, where it is known as vin ëd pom (apple wine) or pomada, because it traditionally was left to ferment in a vat along with grape pomace, giving it a distinctive reddish colour. Taxation is equal to comparable drinks and most Italians are not aware of the existence of cider, making cider an unusual and difficult to find drink in most of Italy.
In Luxembourg, viez (pronounced feetz) is rather like English scrumpy. It is cloudy and varies from non-alcoholic to very alcoholic. It is made only in autumn.
There are two types of cider (sidra) sold in Mexico. One type is a popular apple flavoured carbonated soft drink, sold under a number of soft drink brands, such as Sidral Mundet and Manzana Lift (both Coca-Cola FEMSA brands). The alcoholic sidra is a sparkling cider typically sold in champagne-style bottles with an alcohol content comparable to beer. Sidra was, due to the expense of imported champagne, sometimes used as a substitute for New Year's Eve toasts in Mexico, as it is also a sweet, fruity drink. However, now the practice is to drink cider on Christmas Eve, celebrated with the family, and champagne on New Year's, celebrated with friends. Cider beverages form a very small share of the Mexican alcoholic beverages with the figures for 2009 volume sales amounting to only 3.8 million litres.
In The Netherlands cider is not as commonly available as in its surrounding countries. In 2007 Heineken started testing a cider brand named Jillz in a number of bars throughout the country. The beverage (rather a cider drink beer with fruity sparkling water) is Heineken's leading cider brand, promoted towards female drinkers as an alternative to beer. At the same time, Strongbow Gold was introduced as a secondary brand to provide a measure of choice. Both contain 5% alcohol by volume, which is similar to a typical draught beer in the Netherlands. As of 2009 most supermarkets carry the two dominant brands. Other brands are available from selected retailers, most noticeably Magners and Savanna Dry.
In New Zealand, there are many companies who produce and/or distribute cider in the country. There are also a number of boutique cider houses, including McCashins Brewery in Stoke on the south island and Zeffer Brewing Co based in Matakana, specialising in dry style ciders from freshly crushed fruit. Monteith's Brewery in Greymouth on the west coast of the south island make an apple and a pear cider of increasing international popularity, particularly with the Australian market. Old Mout Cider, based in Nelson on the south island, are becoming known as innovators in the cider industry, blending fruit wines with cider to create fruit ciders including Boysenberry and Feijoa varieties.
In Norway, cider (sider) is a naturally fermented apple juice. Pear juice is sometimes mixed with the apple to get a better fermenting process started. The main area for cider production is in the proclaimed "fruit garden" or "apple orchard" of Norway, the Hardanger region.
Following lengthy navigation through the directives of Norway's complex alcohol laws, three brands of sparkling cider with an abv of approximately 10% are available to the Norwegian public through distribution by the monopoly outlet Vinmonopolet,Hardanger Sider Sprudlande from Hardanger, Krunesider from Begren sourcing apples from Hardanger, and Liersider from Lier. In line with the law of 1975 prohibiting all advertising of alcoholic beverages of abv greater than 2.5%, the products receive little exposure despite some favourable press reaction.
Ciders of low alcohol levels are widely available, mostly brands imported from Sweden, although carbonated soft drinks with no alcoholic content may also be marketed as "cider".
Non-alcoholic, apple-flavoured carbonated drinks are popular in the country, with local brands suchs as Mehran Bottler's Apple Sidra and Murree Brewery's Bigg Apple in the market.
There are two main brands of cider produced in South Africa, Hunters Gold and Savanna Dry. They are produced and distributed through Distell Group Limited. Hunters Gold was first introduced in South Africa in 1988 as an alternative to beer. The range includes Hunters Dry and Hunters Export. Savanna Dry was introduced in 1996 and also comes in a Light Premium variety. A notable small brand is Everson's from the Elgin valley, much drier and higher in alcohol than the mainstream brands, made by traditional methods and aged in oak barrels before bottling.
The making and drinking of cider is traditional in several areas of northern Spain, mainly the Principality of Asturias and the Basque Country.
Cider has been popular in the Basque Country for centuries. Whilst Txacoli and Rioja wines became more popular in Vizcaya, Alava and Navarra during the 19th century, there is still a strong cider culture in Gipuzkoa. From the 1980s, government and gastronomic associations have worked to revive this culture in all Basque regions. Known as sagardoa (IPA: /s̺a'gaɾdoa/), it is drunk either bottled or in a cider house (called a saqardotegi), where it is poured from barrels. Most of "sagardotegis" are in the north of Gipuzkoa (Astigarraga, Hernani, Urnieta and Usurbil), but they can be found everywhere in Guipuzcoa, the north-west of Navarre and the Northern Basque Country.
Cider tasting events are popular in the Basque province of Gipuzkoa, where stalls are set up on the street selling the drink from several producers at cheap prices and served until stock runs out.
But the largest producer of cider in Spain is the Atlantic region of Asturias, amounting to more than the 80% of the whole production of Spain. The consumption of cider in Asturias is of 54 litres per person/year, probably the highest in any European region. The most popular cider in Spain, for example, is called "El Gaitero" (the bagpipe player) which is a sparkling cider more in the way of french ciders. It is a factory produced cider, sweet and very foamy, much like lambrusco, different from the more artisan and traditional cider productions. Recently, new apple tree plantations have been started in grounds belonging to the old coal mines, once important in Asturias
The first testimony about cider in Asturies was made by Greek geographer Strabo in 60 BC.
The traditional Asturian sidra, is a still cider of 4–8% strength, although there are other varieties. Traditionally, it is served insidrerías and chigres, pubs specializing in cider although it is also possible to have other drinks as well as traditional food, where it is poured in very small quantities from a height into a wide glass, with the arm holding the bottle extended upwards and the one holding the glass extended downwards. This technique is called to escanciar un culín (also echar un culín) and is done to get air bubbles into the drink (espalmar), thus giving it a sparkling taste like Champagne that lasts a very short time.
Due to Swedish law, stores in Sweden cannot sell cider with less than 15 percentage juice by volume under the name Cider. "Cider" with none or less than 15% juice is instead usually sold as "Apple/Pear beverage of cider character" (Swedish)"Äpple-/Pärondryck med Ciderkaraktär. Brands of cider in Sweden include Rekorderliq, Kivik and Kopparberg cider. Most Swedish cider has little in common with traditional cider from other countries. Usually it is very sweet and it is very often berry or fruit flavoured, making it more like an alcoholic fruit soda.
In the UK, cider is mostly associated with the West Country, Herefordshire & Worcestershire, but is also produced in Wales and across England, particularly Kent, Suffolk and Norfolk, Cheshire is also home to two cider brewing farms. Cider is available in sweet, medium and dry varieties. Recent years have seen a significant increase in cider sales in the UK. The National Association of Cider Makers (NACM) estimates a minimum of 480 active cider makers in the UK. As of 2008, UK cider production comprises 61.9% of cider produced in the EU, and a 7.9% share of UK alcohol servings.
Cider types in the United Kingdom
There are two broad main traditions in cider production in the UK - the West tradition and the Kent and East Anglia tradition. The former are made using a much higher percentage of true cider-apples and so are richer in tannins and sharper in flavour. Kent and East Anglia ciders tend to use a higher percentage of, or are exclusively made from, culinary and dessert fruit; Kentish ciders such as Biddenden's, Rough Old Wife and Theobolds are typical of this style. They tend to be clearer, more vinous and lighter in body and flavour.
At one end of the scale are the traditional, small farm-produced varieties. These are non-carbonated and usually cloudy orange in appearance. England's West Country contains many of these farms. Production is often on such a small scale the product is only sold at the point of manufacture or in local pubs and shops. At the other end of the scale are the mass production factories for products such as Strongbow and Blackthorn.Mass produced commercial cider such as that produced by Bulmers is likely to be pasteurized and force-carbonated. The colour is likely to be golden yellow with a clear appearance from the filtration. White ciders are almost colourless in appearance.
West of England
Cloudy, unfiltered ciders made in the West Country are often called "scrumpy", from "scrump", a local dialect term for a small or withered apple. Ciders from Gloucestershire, Herefordshire and Worcestershire made from traditional recipes have a Protected Geographical Indication awarded by the European Union. There are over 25 cider producers in Somerset alone, many of them small family businesses. Large producers in the West of England include Thatchers Cider in andford, Somerset, Bulmers (the producer of Strongbow) in Hereford, as well as Brothers Cider and Gaymers Cider Company, both of which are based in Shepton Mallet, Somerset. The latter has the largest cider plant in Europe, which produces a number of brands including Blackthorn and Olde English.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, a condition known as Devon colic, a form of lead poisoning, was associated with the consumption of cider, vanishing after a campaign to remove lead components from cider presses in the early 19th century. The Lead poisoning was also prevalent in Herefordshire as Lead salts were added to the cider as a sweetener, being much cheaper than sugar.
Cider is called “seidr” in Welsh.
Smallhold production of cider made on farms as a beverage for labourers died out in Wales during the 20th century. Cider and perry production in Wales began a dramatic revival in the early 2000s, with many small firms entering production throughout the country. The Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) has actively encouraged this trend, and Welsh ciders and perries have won many awards at CAMRA festivals; meanwhile, the establishment of groups such as UKCider and the Welsh Perry and Cider Society have spurred communication among producers.
Welsh varieties of apples and pears are often distinct from those grown in England, giving cider from Wales a flavour noticeably different to ciders from nearby regions.
Cider is made in Scotland mainly by small producers, such as Thistly Cross and Waulkmill Cider. The apples are sourced in Scotland and the resultant brews are mainly sold near to the place of origin. Thistly Cross produce many fruit flavoured ciders which are now being sold in Scottish Waltrose stores. Waulkmill Cider is made only with apples collected from within Dumfries and Galloway, and is mainly sold at farmers markets and festivals.
Other International Cider The Cyder Market links for other international cider.
Hard Ciderand Perry is currently produced in over 30 nations and available for consumption on all 6 populated continents (and may even be served at the British research station in Antarctica, given that they have a regulation governing drinking cider there...). This Other International cider page is intended to provide assistance for finding and buying excellent ciders and perrys from around the world that are not yet available in the USA. When vacationing or doing business internationally stop by one of these other nation's great cideries and cider pubs or if you are lucky just stop in any pub or restaurant in a region of the world, like England, where cider is fully available. As more information becomes available on international ciders it will be posted here. Also, see Cider Festivals for international gatherings that may coincide with your travels.
The Cyder Market links for other international cider.
Please assist in making these pages as complete as possible by emailing information about any international ciders in general and especially those for sale in the USA, and by emailing your recommendations and comments about them at email@example.com.
Note: The Cyder Market, LLC does not endorse and is not responsible for the content on external web sites. All logo images are screen shots courtesy of the producers' or organizations' website.
In Argentina, cider, or sidra is by far the most popular alcoholic carbonated drink during the Christmas and New Year holidays. It has traditionally been considered the choice of the middle and lower classes (along with ananá fizz, cider and pineapple juice), whereas the higher classes would rather go for champagne for their Christmas or New Year toast. Popular commercial brands of cider are Real, La Victoria, Del Valle, La Farruca and Rama Caída. It is usually marketed in 0.72 litre glass or plastic bottles.
The composition of cider is defined in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code and "means the fruit wine prepared from the juice or must of apples and no more than 25% of the juice or must of pears". Cider has been made in Australia since its early settlement primarily this productions has been for limited local usage, with national commercial distribution and sales dominated by two brands Mercury Cider and Strongbow. Since early 2005 they been joined in the market by numerous new producers including Three Oaks Cider, Pipsqueak and 5 Seeds Cider as well as imported brands like Magners, Weston's, Montieth's, Kopparberg and Rekorderlig.
With the growth in interest in cider, the number of local producers has increased. Some cider producers are attempting to use more traditional methods and traditional cider apple varieties. Tasmania, also known as the 'Apple Isle' is having a resurgence of cider making. Capt.Blighs 'Tasmanian Cider' is one of the newest producers using cider apples from the Huon Valley and Channel area. Huon Cider, made in New Norfolk, Tasmania, from Sturmer Pippin apples, a variety of apple commonly grown in the region since the 1830's. Henry of Harcourt and Bress cider (both from Harcourt, Victoria) are two of the most complex and interesting ciders that are commercially available. Other smaller brands rely on the available culinary (standard eating - supermarket and cooking apples) fruit. From Victoria's Yarra Valley come Coldstream cider, Kelly Brothers cider and Napoleone & Co. The Bridge Road Brewery and Amulet Winery, both in Victoria's Beechworth, have released ciders. South Australia's boutique ciders include Lobo (Adelaide Hills), Thorogoods (Burra) and Aussie Cider (Barossa). Western Australia the number of cider producers has also grown in the southwest region particularly in areas where wine is also produced with producers in Denmark, Pemberton, Wset Australia and Margaret River, West Australia.
The cider market has grown from late 2008 onwards due to the trend in the UK following the Magner's "drink with ice campaign" and to a lesser degree the change in the laws relating to Alcohol Tax on RTD's. Cider had the largest percentage growth in sales of alcohol products in 2009 & 2010.
In Austria cider is made in the south west of Lower Austria, the so called "Mostviertel" and in Upper Austria as well as in parts of Styria. Almost every farmer there has some apple or pear trees. Many of the farmers also have a kind of inn called "Mostheuriger". There they serve cider and also something to eat. Cider is typically called "Most".
Cidrerie Ruwet SA, established in 1898, is the only independent craft cider producer in Belgium. In addition to their own brand Ruwet, the company produces 'high-end' ciders for private labels. Heineken owns the other Belgian cider maker Stassen SA, who in addition to their own local brands such as Strassen X Cider also produce Strongbow Jacques, a 5.5% ABV cider with cherry, raspberry and blackcurrant flavours. Zonhoven based Konings NV specialises in private label ciders for European retailers and offers a wide variety of flavours and packaging options to the beverage industry. Stella Artois Cidre is produced in Zonhoven and has been marketed since 2011.
Quebec cider is considered a traditional alcoholic beverage. It is generally sold in 750 ml bottles, has an alcohol content generally between 7% and 13% (with aperitifs ciders having alcohol content up to 20%), and can be served as a substitute for wine. Cider making was, however, forbidden from the early years of the British rule as it was in direct conflict with established British brewers' interests (most notably John Molson). In recent years, a unique variety has emerged on the market: ice cider. This type of cider is made from apples with a particularly high level of sugar caused by natural frost.
In Ontario, cider or apple hooch is often home-made. Cider is commercially produced in British Columbia (large and small producers), Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Ontario, usually with a 7% alcohol content. It is sold in 341 ml glass bottles and 2 litre plastic bottles, and does not usually have added sugar.
Along with Normandy, the Channel Islands had a strong cider-making tradition. Cider had been the ordinary drink of people of Jersey from the 16th century, when the commercial opportunities offered by cider exports spurred the transformation of feudal open-field agriculture to enclosure. Until the 19th century, it was the largest agricultural export with up to a quarter of the agricultural land given over to orchards. In 1839, for example, 268,199 imperial gallons (1,219,260 L) of cider were exported from Jersey to England alone, and almost 500,000 imperial gallons (2,300,000 L) were exported from Guernsey 1834–1843, but by 1870 exports from Jersey had slumped to 4,632 imperial gallons (21,060 L).
Beer had replaced cider as a fashionable drink in the main export markets, and even the home markets had switched to beer as the population became more urban. Potatoes overtook cider as the most important crop in Jersey in the 1840s, and in Guernsey glasshouse tomato production grew in importance. Small-scale cider production on farms for domestic consumption, particularly by seasonal workers from Brittany and mainland Normandy, was maintained, but by the mid-20th century production dwindled until only 8 farms were producing cider for their own consumption in 1983.
The number of orchards had been reduced to such a level that the destruction of trees in the Storm of 1987 demonstrated how close the Islands had come to losing many of its traditional cider apple varieties. A concerted
Canada- Cider Houses of Canada
Chile- Chucao, Agrovida
Czech Republic- Rossbach, Prager
Denmark- Nordic Cider, Moho Cider
England- Real Cider online, Cider and Perry Page, The Real Cider Company
Finland- Olvi, Kuura
France- Cidernaut Guide, La Cave du Gars
Germany- Cidernaut Guide,Geiger, Cider in Germany
Ireland- Cider Pubs in Ireland
Italy- Maley, Ecomela
Japan- Cider Pub, Asahi, Cousair
Latvia- Cesu, Abavas
Mexico- Barbara, Exquitlan, Oro,
Netherlands-BeerCider, UWE, Cider Cider
New Zealand- Ciders, Edgebrook
Norway- Hakastad, Ciderhuset
Poland- Farmhouse, CYDR
South Africa- Windermere, Savanna, Hunter's, Everson's,